Glossary D-F

January 1, 1970


D.N.A., Deoxyribonucleic Acid — The main constituent of chromosomes in all living organisms, D.N.A. is responsible for the transmission of hereditary characteristics.

Dari Meal; Durra Meal — The meal obtained by grinding commercially pure dari or durra seed.

Decibel — A unit measuring the level of noise.

Decorticating — The process of de-husking grain without splitting the interior.

Density — The weight of a material in a known volume.

Dextrose (Glucose) — Product of the saccharification of starch, consisting of purified, crystallised glucose (with or without water of crystallisation).

Dextrose Equivalent — The reducing power calculated as dextrose, Expressed as a percentage of the dry substance.

Dextrose Molasses — By-product obtained during the crystallation of dextrose.

Diagram — Usually applied to flow sheet.

Diluent — An edible substance used to mix with and reduce the concentration of nutrients and/or additives.

Dressed — Made uniform in texture by breaking and/or screening of lumps.

Dry Milled — Tempered with a small amount of water or steam to facilitate milling in the absence of any significant amount of free water.

Drying — Removal of moisture from grain/pellets usually to facilitate storage.

Due Dilligence — Seen as exercising all reasonable care in the production of goods.

Dunst — Usually applied to stock between flour and middlings in size.

Dust Collector — Machine for removing dust from exhaust air.


Electro Magnet — A magnet with an iron or steel core wound with a coil of wire.

Elevator — Band with buckets attached for lifting stock.

Embryo — Germ of grain, not including scutellum.

Emulsifier — A material capable of causing fats or oils to remain in liquid suspension.

Endocarp — One of the bran skins.

Epidermis — Another of the bran skins.

Escalator — Machine with chains interconnected by bars or carriers for elevation of filled sacks.

Exhaust — Fan suction from any machine.

Expanded — Subjected to moisture, pressure and temperature to gelatinize the starch portion. When extruded its volume is increased due to the abrupt reduction in pressure. N.B. This term is also often used - particularly in Europe - to distinguish products made on an ‘expander’ from those that have been produced on an ‘extruder’.

Extensibility — The elasticity of a dough. Depends on gluten content and flour quality.

Extracted, Expeller — See Exttracted, Mechanical

Extracted, Hydraulic — See Exttracted, Mechanical

Extracted, Hydraulic — See Exttracted, Mechanical

Extracted, Mechanical — Having removed fat or oil from materials by heat and mechanical pressure.

Extracted, Solvent — Having removed fat or oil from materials by organic solvents.

Extruded — A process by which feed has been pressed, pushed or protruded through orifices under pressure. This definition generally refers to feed made on a pellet press. However, it is increasingly used to distinguish feeds or ingredients that have been produced on an ‘extruder’ or ‘extrusion cooker’, from those that have been produced on a pellet press. See Expanded.

Extruder, Extrusion Cooker — A continuous cooker employing a screw, that applies pressure, high temperature and mechanical sheer to produce feeds. The process gelatinizes the starchy components, denatures proteins, stretches or restructures tactile components and causes exothermic expansion of the extrudate.


Falling Number (Hagberg) — Measure of the viscosity of a gelatiniized flour-water suspension.

Fan — Bladed rotor, in a fixed case, for exhaust or movement of air.

Feather Meal — Product obtained by hydrolysing, drying and grinding poultry feathers.

Feed Gate — Gate of machine controlling the entry of stock.

Feeding Bone Flour — Commercially pure bone degreased and ground or crushed from which the nitrogen has been partly or wholly removed by stam.

Ferrous — Containing iron.

Fertilization — The fusion of male and female cells during reproduction.

Fertilizer — A substance added to soil to the pond to increase its productivity.

Fiber — Cellulose constituent of grain or products.

Fifi Bin (First in First Out Bin) — Bin with many outlets to allow the uniform flow of wheat.

Filter — A chamber containing sleeve filter elements to treat dust laden air.

Fines — Any materials which will pass through a screen whose openings are smaller than the specified minimum pellet or crumble size.

Fish By-Product — Non-rendered, clean, undecomposed portions of fish from the fish processing industry.

Fish Digest Residue — The clean, dried, undecomposed residue of the enzymatic digest resulting from the enzyme hydrolysis process of producing fish protein digest.

Fish Oil — The oil from rendered whole fish or cannery waste.

Fish Oil, Hardened, Refined — Oil obtained from fish which has been refined and subjected to hydrogenization.

Fish Protein Concentrate — Feed grade solvent extracted whole, clean, undecomposed fish or fish cuttings.

Fish Protein Digest, Condensed — The condensed enzymatic digest of clean, undecomposed whole fish or fish cuttings, using enzyme hydrolysis.

Fish Protein Digest, Dried — Dried enzymatic digest of clean, undecomposed whole fish or fish cuttings using enzyme hydrolysis

Fish Residue Meal — Fish Residue Meal
The clean, dried, undecomposed residue from the manufacture of glue from non-oily fish.

Fish Solubles, Condensed — Product obtained by evaporating excess moisture from the stickwater. aqueous liquids that results from the wet rendering of fish into fishmeal.

Fish Solubles, Dried — Deydrated stickwater.

Flakes — An ingredient rolled or cut into flat pieces with prior steam conditioning.

Flaking Mill — Rollermill used for flaking maize or oil seeds.

Flow Sheet — Diagram showing distribution of stocks and machines in milling process.

Formula Feed — Two or more ingredients proportioned, mixed and processed according to specifications.

Friable — Easily broken up, crumbley.

Friction Hoist — Sack hoist, thrown in gear by friction plates, pulleys or wheels.

Frictional Cleaning — Cleaning of grain by friction as in scourers and brush machines.

Fumigation — Destruction of pests by means of toxic substances, gaseous or otherwise.

Fungicide — A chemical substance capable of destroying fungi.